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What Is the Metaverse ?

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Thursday, February 10, 2022

 Metaverse 

 The metaverse is a digital reality that combines aspects of social media, online gaming, augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR), and cryptocurrencies to allow users to interact virtually. Augmented reality overlays visual elements, sound, and other sensory input onto real-world settings to enhance the user experience. In contrast, virtual reality is entirely virtual and enhances fictional realities. As the metaverse grows, it will create online spaces where user interactions are more multidimensional than current technology supports. Instead of just viewing digital content, users in the metaverse will be able to immerse themselves in a space where the digital and physical worlds converge. Key Takeaways  The metaverse is a shared virtual environment that people access via the Internet.  Technologies like virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) are combined in the metaverse to create a sense of "virtual presence."  Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg believes augmented reality glasses will eventually be as widespread as smartphones.  In October 2021, Facebook announced plans to create 10,000 new high-skilled jobs in the European Union (EU) to help shape the metaverse

What Is a Liquidity Crisis ?

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 Liquidity Crisis 

A liquidity crisis is a financial situation characterized by a lack of cash or easily-convertible-to-cash assets on hand across many businesses or financial institutions simultaneously. In a liquidity crisis, liquidity problems at individual institutions lead to an acute increase in demand and decrease in supply of liquidity, and the resulting lack of available liquidity can lead to widespread defaults and even bankruptcies. Key Takeaways  A liquidity crisis is a simultaneous increase in demand and decrease in supply of liquidity across many financial institutions or other businesses.  At the root of a liquidity crisis are widespread maturity mismatching among banks and other businesses and a resulting lack of cash and other liquid assets when they are needed.  Liquidity crises can be triggered by large, negative economic shocks or by normal cyclical changes in the economy.

What is Digital Nano Banking ?

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 The City Bank has launched the country's first collateral-free "Digital Nano Loan" service, allowing bKash users to receive instant loans ranging from Tk500 to Tk20,000 through their mobile bKash app. A customer can repay a loan in three equal monthly instalments (EMIs) from their bKash accounts. The interest rate will be 9% per annum," said Mashrur Arefin, managing director and chief executive officer of The City Bank, at the launching ceremony of the service. The service involves daily calculation and processing, which means a borrower will bear interest only for the days the loan was outstanding. As a launch offer, we will not charge any loan processing fee till further announcement Mobile Financial Service (MFS) companies are taking deposits and making money transfers digitally for the mass population. It was never about giving loans to the masses. Hence, there has always been this ethically wrong approach towards financial inclusion, which finally sees itself resolved with this launch of Digital Nano Loan.

What Is a Currency Swap ?

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Currency Swap 

A currency swap, sometimes referred to as a cross-currency swap, involves the exchange of interest—and sometimes of principal—in one currency for the same in another currency. Interest payments are exchanged at fixed dates through the life of the contract. It is considered to be a foreign exchange transaction and is not required by law to be shown on a company's balance sheet. Key Takeaways  A currency swap involves the exchange of interest—and sometimes of principal—in one currency for the same in another currency.  Companies doing business abroad often use currency swaps to get more favorable loan rates in the local currency than if they borrowed money from a local bank.  Considered to be a foreign exchange transaction, currency swaps are not required by law to be shown on a company's balance sheet.  Interest rate variations for currency swaps include fixed rate to fixed rate, floating rate to floating rate, or fixed rate to floating rate.

What Is the Paris Agreement-COP21 ?

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 Paris Agreement 

 The Paris Agreement, also known as the Paris Climate Accord, is an agreement among the leaders of over 180 countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and limit the global temperature increase to below 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 F) above preindustrial levels by the year 2100. Ideally, the agreement aims to keep the increases to below 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7 F). The agreement is also called the 21st Conference of the Parties to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The two-week conference leading to the agreement was held in Paris in December 2015. As of December 2020, 194 UNFCCC members have signed the agreement, and 189 have become party to it. The Paris Agreement is a replacement for the 2005 Kyoto Protocol. Key Takeaways  The Paris Agreement is a U.N.-sponsored international agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.  The agreement was formed in 2015 and has over 190 signatory nations.  The U.S. officially exited the Paris Agreement in November 2020.  President Joe Biden signed an executive order on Jan. 20, 2021, announcing that the U.S. would rejoin the Paris Agreement.

What is a Free Market ?

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Free Market

The free market is an economic system based on supply and demand with little or no government control. It is a summary description of all voluntary exchanges that take place in a given economic environment. Free markets are characterized by a spontaneous and decentralized order of arrangements through which individuals make economic decisions. Based on its political and legal rules, a country's free market economy may range between very large or entirely illegal. 

 Key Takeaways 

 A free market is one where voluntary exchange and the laws of supply and demand provide the sole basis for the economic system, without government intervention. 

  A key feature of free markets is the absence of coerced (forced) transactions or conditions on transactions. 

 While no pure free market economies actually exist, and all markets are in some ways constrained, economists who measure the degree of freedom in markets have found a generally positive relationship between free markets and measures of economic well being.

What Is Business Ethics?

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Wednesday, February 9, 2022

 Business Ethics 

 Business ethics is the study of appropriate business policies and practices regarding potentially controversial subjects including corporate governance, insider trading, bribery, discrimination, corporate social responsibility, and fiduciary responsibilities. The law often guides business ethics, but at other times business ethics provide a basic guideline that businesses can choose to follow to gain public approval. Key Takeaways  Business ethics refers to implementing appropriate business policies and practices with regard to arguably controversial subjects.  Some issues that come up in a discussion of ethics include corporate governance, insider trading, bribery, discrimination, social responsibility, and fiduciary responsibilities.  The law usually sets the tone for business ethics, providing a basic guideline that businesses can choose to follow to gain public approval. What Is a Business Valuation? A business valuation is a general process of determining the economic value of a whole business or company unit. Business valuation can be used to determine the fair value of a business for a variety of reasons, including sale value, establishing partner ownership, taxation, and even divorce proceedings. Owners will often turn to professional business evaluators for an objective estimate of the value of the business. Key Takeaways  Business valuation determines the economic value of a business or business unit. Join Our FB Group Reshep’s Career Care  Business valuation can be used to determine the fair value of a business for a variety of reasons, including sale value, establishing partner ownership, taxation, and even divorce proceedings.  Several methods of valuing a business exist, such as looking at its market cap, earnings multipliers, or book value, among others

What Is a Business Cycle ?

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 Business Cycle 

"Business cycles are a type of fluctuation found in the aggregate economic activity of nations…a cycle consists of expansions occurring at about the same time in many economic activities, followed by similarly general recessions…this sequence of changes is recurrent but not periodic." That description, from the 1946 magnum opus by Arthur F. Burns and Wesley C. Mitchell, Measuring Business Cycles, remains definitive today.1 In essence, business cycles are marked by the alternation of the phases of expansion and contraction in aggregate economic activity, and the comovement among economic variables in each phase of the cycle. Aggregate economic activity is represented by not only real (i.e., inflationadjusted) GDP—a measure of aggregate output—but also the aggregate measures of industrial production, employment, income, and sales, which are the key coincident economic indicators used for the official determination of U.S. business cycle peak and trough dates. Key Takeaways  Business cycles are comprised of concerted cyclical upswings and downswings in the broad measures of economic activity—output, employment, income, and sales.  The alternating phases of the business cycle are expansions and contractions (also called recessions). Recessions start at the peak of the business cycle—when an expansion ends—and end at the trough of the business cycle, when the next expansion begins.  The severity of a recession is measured by the three D’s: depth, diffusion, and duration, and the strength of an expansion by how pronounced, pervasive and persistent it is.

What Is a Budget Deficit ?

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 Budget Deficit 

A budget deficit occurs when expenses exceed revenue and indicate the financial health of a country. The government generally uses the term budget deficit when referring to spending rather than businesses or individuals. Accrued deficits form national debt. Budget Deficits Explained In cases where a budget deficit is identified, current expenses exceed the amount of income received through standard operations. A nation wishing to correct its budget deficit may need to cut back on certain expenditures, increase revenue-generating activities, or employ a combination of the two. Key Takeaways  A budget deficit happens when current expenses exceed the amount of income received through standard operations.  Certain unanticipated events and policies may cause budget deficits.  Countries can counter budget deficits by raising taxes and cutting spending.

What Is a Bull Market?

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 Bull Market 

 A bull market is the condition of a financial market in which prices are rising or are expected to rise. The term "bull market" is most often used to refer to the stock market but can be applied to anything that is traded, such as bonds, real estate, currencies, and commodities. Because prices of securities rise and fall essentially continuously during trading, the term "bull market" is typically reserved for extended periods in which a large portion of security prices are rising. Bull markets tend to last for months or even years. Key Takeaways  A bull market is a period of time in financial markets when the price of an asset or security rises continuously.  The commonly accepted definition of a bull market is when stock prices rise by 20% after two declines of 20% each.  Traders employ a variety of strategies, such as increased buy and hold and retracement, to profit off bull markets.

What Is a Budget ?

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Budget 

A budget is an estimation of revenue and expenses over a specified future period of time and is usually compiled and re-evaluated on a periodic basis. Budgets can be made for a person, a group of people, a business, a government, or just about anything else that makes and spends money. To manage your monthly expenses, prepare for life's unpredictable events, and be able to afford big-ticket items without going into debt, budgeting is important. Keeping track of how much you earn and spend doesn't have to be drudgery, doesn't require you to be good at math, and doesn't mean you can't buy the things you want. It just means that you'll know where your money goes, you'll have greater control over your finances. 

 How To Build A Budget Understanding Budgeting 

 A budget is a microeconomic concept that shows the trade-off made when one good is exchanged for another. In terms of the bottom line—or the end Join Our FB Group Reshep’s Career Care result of this trade-off—a surplus budget means profits are anticipated, a balanced budget means revenues are expected to equal expenses, and a deficit budget means expenses will exceed revenues. 

 Key Takeaways  A budget is an estimation of revenue and expenses over a specified future period of time and is utilized by governments, businesses, and individuals.  A budget is basically a financial plan for a defined period, normally a year that is known to greatly enhance the success of any financial undertaking.  Corporate budgets are essential for operating at peak efficiency.  Aside from earmarking resources, a budget can also aid in setting goals, measuring outcomes, and planning for contingencies.  Personal budgets are extremely useful in managing an individual's or family's finances over both the short and long term horizon.

What Is a Break-Even Analysis?

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Break-Even Analysis 

Break-even analysis entails calculating and examining the margin of safety for an entity based on the revenues collected and associated costs. In other words, the analysis shows how many sales it takes to pay for the cost of doing business. Analyzing different price levels relating to various levels of demand, the break-even analysis determines what level of sales are necessary to cover the company's total fixed costs. A demand-side analysis would give a seller significant insight into selling capabilities. Key Takeaways:  Break-even analysis tells you how many units of a product must be sold to cover the fixed and variable costs of production.  The break-even point is considered a measure of the margin of safety.  Break-even analysis is used broadly, from stock and options trading to corporate budgeting for various projects.

What Is a Bond ?

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Bond 

A bond is a fixed-income instrument that represents a loan made by an investor to a borrower (typically corporate or governmental). A bond could be thought of as an I.O.U. between the lender and borrower that includes the details of the loan and its payments. Bonds are used by companies, municipalities, states, and sovereign governments to finance projects and operations. Owners of bonds are debtholders, or creditors, of the issuer. Bond details include the end date when the principal of the loan is due to be paid to the bond owner and usually include the terms for variable or fixed interest payments made by the borrower. Key Takeaways  Bonds are units of corporate debt issued by companies and securitized as tradeable assets.  A bond is referred to as a fixed-income instrument since bonds traditionally paid a fixed interest rate (coupon) to debtholders. Variable or floating interest rates are also now quite common.  Bond prices are inversely correlated with interest rates: when rates go up, bond prices fall and vice-versa.  Bonds have maturity dates at which point the principal amount must be paid back in full or risk default

What Is a Blockchain ?

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A blockchain is a distributed database that is shared among the nodes of a computer network. As a database, a blockchain stores information electronically in digital format. Blockchains are best known for their crucial role in cryptocurrency systems, such as Bitcoin, for maintaining a secure and decentralized record of transactions. The innovation with a blockchain is that it guarantees the fidelity and security of a record of data and generates trust without the need for a trusted third party. One key difference between a typical database and a blockchain is how the data is structured. A blockchain collects information together in groups, known as blocks, that hold sets of information. Blocks have certain storage capacities and, when filled, are closed and linked to the previously filled block, forming a chain of data known as the blockchain. All new information that follows that freshly added block is compiled into a newly formed block that will then also be added to the chain once filled. A database usually structures its data into tables, whereas a blockchain, like its name implies, structures its data into chunks (blocks) that are strung together. This data structure inherently makes an irreversible time line of data when implemented in a decentralized nature. When a block is filled, it is set in stone and becomes a part of this time line. Each block in the chain is given an exact time stamp when it is added to the chain. Key Takeaways  Blockchain is a type of shared database that differs from a typical database in the way that it stores information; blockchains store data in blocks that are then linked together via cryptography. Join Our FB Group Reshep’s Career Care  As new data comes in, it is entered into a fresh block. Once the block is filled with data, it is chained onto the previous block, which makes the data chained together in chronological order.  Different types of information can be stored on a blockchain, but the most common use so far has been as a ledger for transactions.  In Bitcoin’s case, blockchain is used in a decentralized way so that no single person or group has control—rather, all users collectively retain control.  Decentralized blockchains are immutable, which means that the data entered is irreversible. For Bitcoin, this means that transactions are permanently recorded and viewable to anyone

What Is Bitcoin Mining ?

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Bitcoin Mining: A Primer on the Process and Profits 

Bitcoin mining is the process of creating new bitcoin by solving puzzles. It consists of computing systems equipped with specialized chips competing to solve mathematical puzzles. The first bitcoin miner, as these systems are called, to solve the puzzle is rewarded with bitcoin. The mining process also confirms transactions on the cryptocurrency's network and makes them trustworthy. For a short time after Bitcoin was launched, it was mined on desktop computers with regular central processing units (CPUs). But the process was extremely slow. Now the cryptocurrency is generated using large mining pools spread across many geographies. Bitcoin miners aggregate mining systems that consume massive amounts of electricity to mine the cryptocurrency. In regions where electricity is generated by using fossil fuels, bitcoin mining is considered detrimental to the environment. As a result, many bitcoin miners have moved operations to places with renewable sources of energy to reduce Bitcoin's impact on climate change. Key Takeaways  Bitcoin mining is the process of creating new bitcoin by solving a computational puzzle.  Bitcoin mining is necessary to maintain the ledger of transactions upon which Bitcoin is based.  Miners have become very sophisticated over the past several years, using complex machinery to speed up mining operations. 

Bitcoin mining has generated controversy because it is not considered environmentally friendly.

What Is a Bill of Lading ?

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 Bill of Lading 

 A bill of lading (BL or BoL) is a legal document issued by a carrier to a shipper that details the type, quantity, and destination of the goods being carried. A bill of lading also serves as a shipment receipt when the carrier delivers the goods at a predetermined destination. This document must accompany the shipped products, no matter the form of transportation, and must be signed by an authorized representative from the carrier, shipper, and receiver. Key Takeaways  A bill of lading is a legal document issued by a carrier to a shipper that details the type, quantity, and destination of the goods being carried.  A bill of lading is a document of title, a receipt for shipped goods, and a contract between a carrier and shipper.1  This document must accompany the shipped goods and must be signed by an authorized representative from the carrier, shipper, and receiver.  If managed and reviewed properly, a bill of lading can help prevent asset theft.

What Is Beta ?

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Beta

Beta is a measure of the volatility—or systematic risk—of a security or portfolio compared to the market as a whole. Beta is used in the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), which describes the relationship between systematic risk and expected return for assets (usually stocks). CAPM is widely used as a method for pricing risky securities and for generating estimates of the expected returns of assets, considering both the risk of those assets and the cost of capital. Key Takeaways  Beta, primarily used in the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), is a measure of the volatility–or systematic risk–of a security or portfolio compared to the market as a whole.  Beta data about an individual stock can only provide an investor with an approximation of how much risk the stock will add to a (presumably) diversified portfolio.  For beta to be meaningful, the stock should be related to the benchmark that is used in the calculation.

What is Bear Market ?

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A bear market is when a market experiences prolonged price declines. It typically describes a condition in which securities prices fall 20% or more from recent highs amid widespread pessimism and negative investor sentiment. Bear markets are often associated with declines in an overall market or index like the S&P 500, but individual securities or commodities can also be considered to be in a bear market if they experience a decline of 20% or more over a sustained period of time—typically two months or more. Bear markets also may accompany general economic downturns such as a recession. Bear markets may be contrasted with upward-trending bull markets. Key Takeaways  Bear markets occur when prices in a market decline by more than 20%, often accompanied by negative investor sentiment and declining economic prospects.1  Bear markets can be cyclical or longer-term. The former lasts for several weeks or a couple of months and the latter can last for several years or even decades.  Short selling, put options, and inverse ETFs are some of the ways in which investors can make money during a bear market as prices fall.

What is Bankruptcy ?

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Bankruptcy is a legal proceeding involving a person or business that is unable to repay their outstanding debts. The bankruptcy process begins with a petition filed by the debtor, which is most common, or on behalf of creditors, which is less common. All of the debtor's assets are measured and evaluated, and the assets may be used to repay a portion of the outstanding debt. Key Takeaways  Bankruptcy is a legal proceeding carried out to allow individuals or businesses freedom from their debts, while simultaneously providing creditors an opportunity for repayment.  Bankruptcy is handled in federal courts, and rules are outlined in the U.S. Bankruptcy Code.1  There are various types of bankruptcy, commonly referred to by their chapter within the U.S. Bankruptcy Code.2  Bankruptcy can allow you a fresh start, but it will stay on your credit reports for a number of years and make it difficult to borrow in the future.

What Is the CAMELS Rating System ?

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 CAMELS Rating 

 CAMELS is a recognized international rating system that bank supervisory authorities use in order to rate financial institutions according to six factors represented by its acronym. Supervisory authorities assign each bank a score on a scale. A rating of one is considered the best, and a rating of five is considered the worst for each factor. Key Takeaways  CAMELS is an international rating system used by regulatory banking authorities to rate financial institutions, according to the six factors represented by its acronym.  The CAMELS acronym stands for "Capital adequacy, Asset quality, Management, Earnings, Liquidity, and Sensitivity.

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